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Bovine Rumen Metabolome Database



Showing metabocard for Choline (RMDB00097)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2005-11-16 15:48:42
Update Date 2009-05-28 10:37:42
Accession Number RMDB00097
Common Name Choline
Description A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism. Choline is now considered to be an essential vitamin. While animal can synthesize small amounts (by converting phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine), it must be consumed in the diet to maintain health. Choline is key compound for the synthesis of 2 important molecules, phosphatidylcholine and acetylcholine . Phosphatidylcholine is the main phospholipid in ruminants and it is critical for lipid absorption and transport, cell membrane structure, cell signaling, and synthesis of lipoproteins (Zeisel and Holmes-McNary, 2001). The second compound synthesized from choline, acetylcholine, is a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system and critical in the neuromuscular junctions for muscle contractions. Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-coA in neurons.Most choline is found in phospholipids, namely phosphatidylcholine or lecithin. Choline can be oxidized to form betaine, which is a methyl source for many reactions (i.e. conversion of homocysteine e to methionine). Lack of sufficient amounts of choline in the diet can lead to a fatty liver condition and general liver damage. This arises from the lack of VLDL, which is necessary to transport fats away from the liver. Choline deficiency also leads to elevated serum levels of alanine amino transferase and is associated with increased incidence of liver cancer. Choline that reaches the small intestine of cows is in the form of phosphatidylcholine present in rumen microbes, primarily protozoa (Broad and Dawson, 1976). High concentrate diets typically reduce protozoa numbers, which could limit the supply of choline to cows. Sharma and Erdman (1989a) estimated the in vitro ruminal degradation of choline present in feedstuffs typically fed to cows.
Synonyms
  1. (2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethyl ammonium
  2. (2-Hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium
  3. (beta-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium
  4. 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium
  5. Bilineurine
  6. Biocolina
  7. Biocoline
  8. Choline
  9. Choline cation
  10. Choline ion
  11. Cholinum
  12. Hepacholine
  13. Hormocline
  14. Lipotril
  15. N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium
  16. Neocolina
  17. Paresan
  18. 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-ethanaminium
  19. N,N,N-trimethylethanol-ammonium
Chemical IUPAC Name 2-hydroxyethyl-trimethyl-ammonium
Chemical Formula C5H14NO
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom
  • Organic
Super Class
  • Amino acids and Amino Acid conjugates
Class
  • Quaternary Amines
Sub Class
  • Short chain quaternary ammonium salts
Family
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
Species
  • cation; primary alcohol; quaternary ammonium salt
Biofunction
  • Essential vitamins; Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism; Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism; Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
Application
Source
  • Exogenous
Average Molecular Weight 104.171
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 104.107536
Isomeric SMILES C[N+](C)(C)CCO
Canonical SMILES C[N+](C)(C)CCO
KEGG Compound ID C00114 Link Image
BioCyc ID CPD-563 Link Image
BiGG ID 33910 Link Image
Wikipedia Link Choline Link Image
METLIN ID 56 Link Image
PubChem Compound 305 Link Image
PubChem Substance 608363 Link Image
ChEBI ID 15354 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 62-49-7
InChI Identifier InChI=1/C5H14NO/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7/h7H,4-5H2,1-3H3/q+1
Synthesis Reference Hasegawa, Yoichi; Hyoda, Shunji; Sawada, Hirotoshi; Baba, Masakatsu. Preparation of high-purity organic carboxylic acid choline salts and choline. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1999), 9 pp.
Melting Point (Experimental) 302-303 oC (Chloride salt)
Experimental Water Solubility Not Available Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 3.61 mg/mL [Predicted by ALOGPS]; 1000 mg/mL at 25 oC [MEYLAN,WM et al. (1996)] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge 1
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity Not Available Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity -3.59 [Predicted by ALOGPS]; -5.16 [MEYLAN,WM & HOWARD,PH (1995)] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show Link Image
SDF File Show Link Image
PDB File Show Link Image
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID 1GVM Link Image
Experimental PDB File Show
Experimental PDB Structure
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Not Available
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Mass Spectrum
Low Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Medium Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
High Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Not Available
BMRB Spectrum Not Available
Cellular Location
  • Cytoplasm
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • Extracellular
  • golgi apparatus
  • mitochondria
  • nucleus
Biofluid Location
  • Cow_Milk
  • Rumen
Tissue Location
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 17.54 +/- 6.66 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition Normal (0% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis)
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Concentrations (Abnormal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 13 +/- 3 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 15% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 17 +/- 6 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 30% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 25 +/- 13 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 45% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Pathway Names Not Available
HMDB Pathways Not Available
KEGG Pathways Not Available
SimCell Pathways Not Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia Link Image
Metabolic Enzymes
  1. Acetylcholinesterase
  2. Phospholipase D3
  3. Cholinesterase
  4. Phospholipase D2
Enzyme 1 [top]
Enzyme 1 ID 529
Enzyme 1 Name Acetylcholinesterase
Enzyme 1 Synonyms
  1. AChE
Enzyme 1 Gene Name ACHE
Enzyme 1 Protein Sequence >Acetylcholinesterase
MRPPWCPLHTPSLTPPLLLLLFLIGGGAEAEGPEDPELLVMVRGGRLRGLRLMAPRGPVS
AFLGIPFAEPPVGPRRFLPPEPKRPWPGVLNATAFQSVCYQYVDTLYPGFEGTEMWNPNR
ELSEDCLYLNVWTPYPRPSSPTPVLVWIYGGGFYSGASSLDVYDGRFLTQAEGTVLVSMN
YRVGAFGFLALPGSREAPGNVGLLDQRLALQWVQENVAAFGGDPTSVTLFGESAGAASVG
MHLLSPPSRGLFHRAVLQSGAPNGPWATVGVGEARRRATLLARLVGCPPGGAGGNDTELV
ACLRARPAQDLVDHEWRVLPQESVFRFSFVPVVDGDFLSDTPEALINAGDFHGLQVLVGV
VKDEGSYFLVYGAPGFSKDNESLISRAQFLAGVRVGVPQASDLAAEAVVLHYTDWLHPED
PARLREALSDVVGDHNVVCPVAQLAGRLAAQGARVYAYIFEHRASTLSWPLWMGVPHGYE
IEFIFGLPLEPSLNYTIEERTFAQRLMRYWANFARTGDPNDPRDPKAPQWPPYTAGAQQY
VSLNLRPLEVRRGLRAQACAFWNRFLPKLLSATDTLDEAERQWKAEFHRWSSYMVHWKNQ
FDHYSKQDRCSDL
Enzyme 1 Number of Residues 613
Enzyme 1 Molecular Weight 67663.4
Enzyme 1 Theoretical pI 6.07
Enzyme 1 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 1 General Function Lipid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 1 Specific Function Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft
Enzyme 1 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 1 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 1 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 1 Signals
  • 1-30
Enzyme 1 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 1 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 1 GenBank ID Protein 115305091 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P23795 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ACES_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 1 PDB ID 1F8U Link Image
Enzyme 1 PDB File Show
Enzyme 1 3D Structure
Enzyme 1 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 1 Gene Sequence >1842 bp
ATGAGGCCCCCGTGGTGTCCCCTGCACACGCCCTCCCTGACTCCCCCGCTCCTTCTCCTC
CTCTTCCTTCTGGGAGGAGGGGCAGAGGCCGAGGGCCCAGAGGACCCAGAGCTGCTGGTG
ATGGTGCGTGGGGGCCGACTGCGGGGTCTCCGCCTAATGGCCCCCAGGGGCCCTGTCTCT
GCTTTTCTGGGCATCCCCTTCGCAGAGCCACCTGTGGGCCCCCGTCGCTTTCTGCCACCA
GAGCCCAAGCGGCCCTGGCCAGGGGTGCTGAATGCCACGGCCTTCCAAAGCGTCTGCTAC
CAGTATGTGGACACCTTGTACCCCGGCTTTGAGGGCACTGAGATGTGGAACCCCAACCGT
GAGCTGAGTGAGGACTGCCTCTACCTCAACGTGTGGACACCGTACCCCCGGCCTTCGTCC
CCCACCCCTGTCCTCGTCTGGATCTATGGGGGTGGCTTCTACAGCGGGGCCTCCTCCCTG
GATGTGTACGATGGCCGTTTCCTGACCCAGGCTGAGGGGACTGTGCTGGTGTCCATGAAC
TACCGGGTGGGCGCCTTTGGCTTCTTGGCTCTGCCGGGGAGCCGGGAGGCCCCAGGCAAT
GTGGGGCTACTGGATCAGAGGCTGGCACTGCAGTGGGTGCAGGAGAATGTGGCAGCCTTC
GGGGGGGACCCAACGTCAGTGACTCTGTTTGGGGAAAGTGCAGGTGCCGCTTCTGTGGGC
ATGCACCTGCTGTCCCCACCCAGCCGGGGCCTGTTCCACAGGGCCGTGCTGCAGAGCGGG
GCACCCAATGGGCCCTGGGCCACGGTGGGCGTAGGAGAGGCCCGCCGGAGGGCCACACTG
CTGGCCCGCCTTGTGGGTTGTCCCCCGGGTGGGGCTGGTGGCAATGACACAGAGCTGGTG
GCCTGCCTGCGGGCACGGCCAGCTCAGGACCTGGTGGACCATGAGTGGCGCGTGCTGCCT
CAGGAAAGCGTCTTCCGCTTCTCCTTCGTGCCTGTGGTGGACGGAGACTTCCTCAGTGAC
ACACCCGAGGCCCTCATCAATGCTGGAGACTTCCATGGCCTGCAGGTGCTGGTGGGTGTG
GTGAAGGATGAGGGCTCCTATTTTCTGGTTTATGGGGCCCCAGGCTTCAGCAAAGACAAC
GAGTCTCTCATCAGCCGGGCCCAGTTCCTGGCCGGGGTGCGGGTCGGGGTCCCCCAGGCA
AGTGACCTGGCTGCCGAGGCTGTGGTCCTGCATTACACAGACTGGCTGCACCCTGAGGAC
CCAGCACGCCTGAGGGAGGCCTTGAGTGATGTGGTGGGTGACCACAACGTCGTGTGCCCC
GTGGCCCAGCTGGCTGGGCGACTGGCCGCTCAGGGCGCTCGTGTCTATGCCTACATCTTT
GAACACCGTGCATCCACGCTCTCCTGGCCCCTCTGGATGGGGGTGCCCCACGGCTACGAG
ATCGAGTTCATCTTCGGGCTCCCCCTGGAACCCTCGCTCAACTACACCATCGAGGAGAGA
ACCTTTGCCCAGCGACTGATGAGATACTGGGCCAACTTCGCCCGCACAGGAGACCCCAAT
GACCCCCGGGACCCCAAAGCCCCACAGTGGCCACCGTATACGGCGGGAGCGCAGCAGTAC
GTGAGCCTGAATCTGCGGCCTCTAGAGGTGCGGCGAGGGCTGCGAGCCCAGGCCTGCGCT
TTCTGGAATCGCTTCCTGCCCAAACTACTCAGCGCCACCGACACGCTGGACGAGGCGGAG
CGCCAGTGGAAGGCCGAGTTCCATCGCTGGAGCTCCTACATGGTGCACTGGAAGAACCAG
TTTGACCATTACAGCAAGCAGGATCGCTGCTCAGACCTGTGA
Enzyme 1 GenBank Gene ID BC123898 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GeneCard ID ACHE Link Image
Enzyme 1 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Chromosome Location Chromosome:7
Enzyme 1 Locus 7q22
Enzyme 1 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 1 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 1 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 2 [top]
Enzyme 2 ID 834
Enzyme 2 Name Phospholipase D3
Enzyme 2 Synonyms
  1. PLD 3
  2. Choline phosphatase 3
  3. Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D3
Enzyme 2 Gene Name PLD3
Enzyme 2 Protein Sequence >Phospholipase D3
MKPKLMYQELKVPAEEPASELPMNEIEAWKAAEKKARWVLLVLILAVVGFGALMTQLFLW
EYGDLHLFGPNQRPAPCYDPCEAVLVESIPEGLDFPNASTSNPSTSQAWLGLLAGAHSSL
DIASFYWTLTNNDTHTQEASAQQGEEVLRQLQTLAPRGVKVRIAVSKPNGPQPQADLQAL
LQSGAQVRMVDMQKLTHGVLHTKFWVVDQTHFYLGSANMDWRSLTQVKELGVVMYNCSCL
ARDLTKIFEAYWFLGQAGSSIPSTWPRPYDTRYNQETPMEICLNGTPALAYLASAPPPLC
PSGRTPDLKALLNVVDNARSFIYIAVMNYLPIMEFSHPRRFWPAIDDGLRRAAYERGVKV
RLLISCWGHSDPSMRAFLLSLAALRDNHTHSDIQVKLFVVPADDAQARIPYARVNHNKYM
VTERATYIGTSNWSGSYFTETAGTSLLVTQNGRGGLRSQLEAVFLRDWDSPYSHDLDAAA
DSVGNACRLL
Enzyme 2 Number of Residues 490
Enzyme 2 Molecular Weight 54618.8
Enzyme 2 Theoretical pI 6.64
Enzyme 2 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 2 General Function Involved in NAPE-specific phospholipase D activity
Enzyme 2 Specific Function A phosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = choline + a phosphatidate
Enzyme 2 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 2 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 2 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 2 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 2 Transmembrane Regions
  • 39-59
Enzyme 2 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 2 GenBank ID Protein 86820171 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q2KJJ8 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PLD3_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 2 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 2 Gene Sequence >1473 bp
ATGAAGCCTAAACTGATGTACCAGGAGCTGAAGGTGCCTGCTGAGGAACCTGCCAGCGAA
CTGCCCATGAATGAGATCGAGGCATGGAAAGCTGCAGAAAAGAAAGCTCGTTGGGTCCTT
CTGGTCCTTATCCTGGCAGTTGTGGGCTTCGGTGCCCTGATGACTCAGCTGTTTCTATGG
GAATACGGCGACTTGCATCTCTTTGGGCCCAATCAGCGCCCAGCCCCCTGCTATGACCCT
TGCGAAGCAGTGCTGGTGGAGAGCATTCCCGAGGGCCTGGACTTCCCCAATGCCTCCACG
AGCAACCCCTCCACCAGCCAGGCCTGGCTGGGCCTGCTCGCTGGTGCCCACAGCAGCCTG
GACATTGCCTCCTTCTACTGGACTCTCACCAACAATGACACCCACACTCAGGAAGCCTCT
GCTCAGCAGGGCGAGGAGGTCCTCCGGCAGCTGCAGACTCTGGCACCCCGAGGTGTGAAG
GTCCGCATTGCTGTGAGCAAGCCCAATGGGCCCCAGCCCCAGGCAGACCTACAGGCGCTG
CTACAGAGCGGTGCCCAGGTCCGCATGGTGGACATGCAGAAGCTGACCCATGGCGTCCTG
CATACCAAGTTCTGGGTGGTGGACCAGACCCACTTCTACCTCGGCAGTGCCAACATGGAT
TGGCGCTCCCTGACCCAGGTCAAGGAGCTGGGTGTGGTCATGTACAACTGCAGCTGCCTA
GCTCGAGACCTGACCAAGATCTTCGAGGCCTACTGGTTCCTGGGCCAGGCGGGCAGCTCC
ATCCCATCAACCTGGCCCCGGCCTTACGACACCCGCTACAATCAAGAGACTCCAATGGAA
ATCTGCCTCAACGGAACCCCTGCTCTGGCCTACCTGGCGAGTGCACCCCCACCGCTGTGT
CCGAGTGGCCGCACCCCAGACTTGAAGGCCCTGCTCAACGTGGTGGACAACGCCCGGAGT
TTCATCTACATCGCAGTCATGAACTACCTGCCCATCATGGAGTTCTCCCACCCACGCCGG
TTCTGGCCTGCCATTGACGACGGGCTGCGGCGGGCTGCCTATGAGCGGGGCGTCAAGGTA
CGCCTGCTGATCAGCTGCTGGGGACACTCTGACCCCTCAATGCGGGCCTTCCTGCTCTCC
CTGGCTGCCCTGCGTGACAACCACACCCACTCCGACATCCAGGTGAAACTCTTTGTGGTC
CCTGCGGACGATGCCCAGGCCCGAATCCCTTATGCCCGCGTCAACCATAACAAGTACATG
GTGACTGAACGGGCCACCTACATCGGAACCTCCAACTGGTCTGGCAGCTACTTCACCGAG
ACGGCAGGCACCTCGCTGCTGGTGACACAGAACGGGCGGGGTGGCCTGCGGAGCCAGCTG
GAGGCCGTGTTCCTGAGGGACTGGGACTCCCCTTATAGCCATGACCTTGACGCTGCCGCC
GACAGCGTGGGCAACGCCTGTCGCCTGCTCTGA
Enzyme 2 GenBank Gene ID BC105309 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GeneCard ID PLD3 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 2 Locus 19q13.2
Enzyme 2 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 2 General References Not Available
Enzyme 2 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 3 [top]
Enzyme 3 ID 835
Enzyme 3 Name Cholinesterase
Enzyme 3 Synonyms
  1. Acylcholine acylhydrolase
  2. Choline esterase II
  3. Butyrylcholine esterase
  4. Pseudocholinesterase
Enzyme 3 Gene Name BCHE
Enzyme 3 Protein Sequence >Cholinesterase
MQSRSTVIYIRFVLWFLLLWVLFEKSHTEEDIIITTKNGKVRGMHLPVLGGTVTAFLGIP
YAQPPLGRLRFKKPQSLTKWPDIWNATKYANSCYQNTDQSFPGFLGSEMWNPNTDLSEDC
LYLNVWIPTPKPKNATVMIWIYGGSFQTGTSSLHVYDGKFLARVERVIVVSMNYRVGALG
FLALPGNPEAPGNVGLFDQQLALQWVQKNIAAFGGNPKSVTLFGESAGAASVSLHLLSPE
SHPLFTRAILQSGSSNAPWAVTSRYEARNRTLTLAKFIGCSRENDTEIIKCLRNKDPQEI
LRHEVFVVPYGTLLSVNFGPTVDGDFLTDMPDTLLQLGQFKKTQILVGVNKDEGTAFLVY
GAPGFSKDNNSIITRKEFQEGLKIFFPGVSEFGKESILFHYMDWLDDQRAEKYREALDDV
VGDYNIICPALEFTKKFSDMGNNAFFYYFEHRSSKLPWPEWMGVMHGYEIEFVFGLPLER
RVNYTKAEEIFSRSIMKRWANFAKYGNPNGTQNNSTRWPVFKSNEQKYFTLNTESPKVNT
KLRAQQCRFWTLFFPKVLEITGNIDEVEREWKAGFHRWNNYMMDWKNQFNDYTSKKESCA
GL
Enzyme 3 Number of Residues 602
Enzyme 3 Molecular Weight 68866.2
Enzyme 3 Theoretical pI 8.57
Enzyme 3 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 3 General Function Lipid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 3 Specific Function An acylcholine + H(2)O = choline + a carboxylate
Enzyme 3 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 3 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 3 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 3 Signals
  • 1-28
Enzyme 3 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 3 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 3 GenBank ID Protein 115304881 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P32749 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CHLE_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 3 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 3 Gene Sequence >1809 bp
ATGCAGAGCCGGAGTACAGTCATATACATCAGATTTGTCTTGTGGTTCCTTCTGCTCTGG
GTACTCTTTGAGAAGTCACACACTGAAGAAGACATCATAATTACCACCAAGAATGGAAAA
GTCAGGGGGATGCACTTGCCAGTACTTGGTGGCACAGTAACAGCCTTTCTTGGAATCCCG
TATGCACAGCCACCTCTTGGTAGACTACGATTCAAAAAGCCACAATCTTTGACCAAGTGG
CCTGATATTTGGAATGCCACAAAATATGCAAATTCTTGTTATCAGAACACAGATCAAAGT
TTTCCAGGCTTCCTTGGTTCAGAGATGTGGAACCCAAACACTGACCTCAGTGAAGACTGT
TTATATCTAAATGTGTGGATTCCAACACCTAAACCAAAAAATGCTACTGTAATGATATGG
ATCTACGGTGGTAGTTTTCAGACTGGAACATCATCTTTGCATGTTTATGATGGCAAGTTT
CTGGCACGGGTTGAAAGAGTTATTGTGGTTTCAATGAACTATAGAGTGGGTGCCCTCGGA
TTCTTAGCTTTACCAGGAAATCCTGAGGCACCAGGGAATGTTGGTCTATTTGATCAACAG
TTGGCTCTTCAGTGGGTCCAAAAAAACATAGCAGCCTTTGGTGGAAATCCTAAAAGTGTA
ACTCTCTTTGGAGAAAGTGCAGGAGCAGCTTCAGTTAGCCTTCATTTACTTTCTCCTGAA
AGCCACCCGTTGTTTACCAGAGCTATTCTGCAAAGTGGATCCTCTAATGCTCCTTGGGCA
GTGACATCTCGTTATGAAGCTAGGAACAGAACATTGACTTTAGCTAAATTTATTGGTTGC
TCTAGAGAAAATGACACTGAGATAATCAAATGCCTTCGAAATAAAGATCCCCAGGAGATT
CTTCGTCATGAAGTGTTTGTTGTCCCCTATGGTACACTCTTATCAGTAAATTTTGGTCCC
ACTGTGGATGGTGATTTTCTCACTGACATGCCAGACACACTACTCCAACTTGGACAGTTC
AAAAAAACCCAGATCTTGGTGGGTGTTAATAAAGATGAAGGGACAGCATTTTTAGTATAT
GGTGCTCCTGGCTTCAGCAAAGATAACAATAGTATTATAACCAGAAAAGAATTTCAAGAA
GGTTTAAAAATATTTTTTCCAGGAGTGAGTGAGTTTGGAAAGGAATCGATCCTTTTCCAC
TACATGGACTGGTTAGATGATCAGAGAGCTGAAAAGTACCGTGAGGCCTTGGATGATGTT
GTTGGGGATTATAATATCATATGTCCTGCTTTGGAGTTCACCAAAAAGTTCTCAGATATG
GGAAACAATGCCTTTTTCTACTACTTCGAGCACCGATCCTCCAAACTCCCTTGGCCAGAA
TGGATGGGAGTGATGCATGGTTATGAGATCGAATTTGTTTTTGGTTTGCCACTGGAAAGA
AGAGTTAATTACACAAAAGCTGAGGAAATTTTTAGTAGATCCATTATGAAACGTTGGGCA
AATTTTGCAAAATATGGAAATCCGAATGGGACCCAGAACAATAGTACAAGATGGCCTGTC
TTCAAAAGCAATGAACAAAAGTATTTCACCTTAAATACAGAGTCACCAAAAGTAAATACC
AAACTACGTGCTCAACAATGCCGATTCTGGACACTATTTTTTCCCAAAGTTTTGGAAATT
ACAGGAAATATTGATGAAGTAGAACGAGAATGGAAAGCAGGATTCCATCGCTGGAACAAT
TACATGATGGATTGGAAAAATCAATTTAACGATTACACTAGCAAGAAAGAAAGCTGTGCA
GGTCTCTAA
Enzyme 3 GenBank Gene ID BC123600 Link Image
Enzyme 3 GeneCard ID BCHE Link Image
Enzyme 3 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Chromosome Location Chromosome:3
Enzyme 3 Locus 3q26.1-q26.2
Enzyme 3 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 3 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 3 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 4 [top]
Enzyme 4 ID 836
Enzyme 4 Name Phospholipase D2
Enzyme 4 Synonyms
  1. PLD 2
  2. Choline phosphatase 2
  3. Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D2
Enzyme 4 Gene Name PLD2
Enzyme 4 Protein Sequence >Phospholipase D2
MAATPQSLFPSGDDLDSSQLQMEPDEVDTLKEGEDPADRMHPFLAIYHLQPLKLHPLVFA
PGVPVIAQVVGTERYTSGSKVGTCTLYSVRLTHGDFTWTTKKKFRHFQELHRDLLRHKVF
MSLLPLARFAVASSPAPEGDSREIPSLPRAGPEGSSRRTASKQKYLENYLNRLLTMSFYR
NYHAMTEFLEVSQLSFIPDLGCKGLEGVIRKRSGGHRVPGLTCCGRDQVCYRWSKRWLVV
KDSFLLYMCLETGAISFVQLFDPGFKVQVGKRSTEARYGVRVDTSHRSLILKCSSYRQAR
WWAQEITELAQGPGRDFIQLHRHDSYAPPRPGTLARWFVNGAGYFAAVADAILRAQEEIF
ITDWWLSPEIYLKRPAHSDDWRLDIMLKKKAEEGVHVSVLLFKEVELALAINSGYSKKAL
MLLHPNIKVMRHPDQVTLWAHHEKLLVVDQVVAFLGGLDLAYGRWDDLHYRLTDLGDSSE
SAAPQPPTSCSDLPATPDLTHNQLFWLGKDYSNLITKDWVQLDRPFDDFIDRETMPRMPW
RDIGVVVHGSPARDLARHFIQRWNFTKTTKTKYKIPIYPYLLPKSTSTANQLPFTLSGGQ
CATVQVLRSVDRWSAGTLENSILNAYLHTIRESQHFLYIENQFFISCSDGRTVLNKVGDE
IVDRILKAHKQGQCFRVYVLLPLLPGFEGDISTGGGNSIQAILHFTYRTLCRGEYSILHR
LKAAMGTEWRNYISVCGLRTHGELGGHPVSELIYIHSKMLIADDRTVIIGSANINDRSLL
GKRDSELAVLIEDTEMEPSLMNGVEYQAGRFALSLRKHCFSVILGAAARPHLDLRDPVCD
AFFQLWQDTAESNANIYEQIFRCLPSNATRSLRALREYVVVEPLATVSPPLARSELNQVQ
GHLVHFPLKFLEDEYLLPSLGSKEGVMPLEVWT
Enzyme 4 Number of Residues 933
Enzyme 4 Molecular Weight 105765.2
Enzyme 4 Theoretical pI 7.87
Enzyme 4 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 4 General Function Lipid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 4 Specific Function May have a role in signal-induced cytoskeletal regulation and/or endocytosis
Enzyme 4 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 4 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 4 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 4 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 4 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 4 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 4 GenBank ID Protein 110331871 Link Image
Enzyme 4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q0V8L6 Link Image
Enzyme 4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PLD2_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 4 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 4 Gene Sequence >2802 bp
ATGGCGGCAACCCCCCAGAGCCTTTTTCCCTCTGGGGATGACCTGGACTCCAGCCAGTTA
CAGATGGAGCCCGATGAGGTGGACACCCTGAAGGAGGGAGAGGACCCAGCCGACCGGATG
CATCCCTTTCTGGCCATCTACCACCTCCAGCCTCTGAAATTGCATCCCTTGGTGTTTGCC
CCTGGGGTCCCCGTCATAGCTCAGGTGGTGGGCACTGAAAGATACACCAGTGGATCCAAG
GTGGGCACGTGCACTCTGTATTCCGTCCGCTTGACTCACGGTGACTTCACCTGGACAACC
AAGAAGAAGTTCCGTCATTTCCAGGAGTTGCATCGGGACCTCCTGAGACACAAAGTCTTC
ATGAGTCTGCTCCCTCTGGCTCGTTTTGCTGTTGCTTCATCTCCAGCCCCAGAGGGAGAC
AGCAGAGAGATACCCTCTCTACCCCGAGCAGGTCCTGAGGGCTCCTCCAGACGCACCGCT
AGCAAGCAGAAATACCTGGAGAATTATCTCAACCGCCTCCTGACCATGTCTTTCTACCGC
AACTACCATGCCATGACAGAGTTCCTGGAAGTCAGTCAGCTGTCCTTTATCCCAGACCTC
GGATGCAAAGGACTGGAGGGGGTGATCCGGAAGCGCTCAGGTGGCCACCGCGTTCCTGGC
CTCACCTGCTGCGGCCGAGACCAAGTTTGTTATCGTTGGTCCAAGCGGTGGCTGGTGGTG
AAGGACTCCTTCCTGCTGTACATGTGCCTGGAGACTGGCGCCATCTCCTTTGTTCAGCTC
TTCGACCCTGGCTTCAAGGTGCAGGTGGGGAAAAGGAGTACAGAGGCACGGTACGGGGTC
CGGGTCGACACCTCTCACAGGTCCTTGATTCTCAAGTGCAGCAGCTACCGGCAGGCACGG
TGGTGGGCCCAGGAGATCACCGAGCTGGCCCAGGGCCCGGGCAGAGACTTCATTCAGCTG
CACCGGCACGACAGCTATGCTCCTCCCCGGCCTGGGACCCTAGCCCGGTGGTTTGTGAAT
GGGGCAGGTTACTTTGCTGCTGTGGCAGATGCCATCCTTCGAGCTCAAGAAGAGATTTTC
ATCACAGACTGGTGGTTGAGTCCTGAGATTTACCTGAAGCGTCCAGCCCATTCAGATGAC
TGGAGACTGGACATTATGCTCAAGAAGAAGGCGGAGGAGGGTGTCCATGTGTCTGTACTG
CTGTTCAAGGAAGTGGAGTTGGCCTTGGCCATCAACAGTGGCTACAGCAAGAAGGCACTG
ATGCTGCTGCATCCCAACATAAAGGTGATGCGCCACCCAGACCAGGTGACACTGTGGGCC
CATCATGAGAAGCTCCTGGTGGTGGACCAAGTAGTGGCCTTCCTGGGGGGGCTGGACCTT
GCCTATGGCCGCTGGGATGACCTACACTACAGACTGACTGATCTGGGGGACTCCTCTGAG
TCAGCTGCCCCCCAGCCTCCCACCTCATGCTCAGACCTTCCAGCTACCCCCGACCTCACT
CACAACCAACTCTTCTGGCTGGGCAAGGACTACAGCAATCTTATCACTAAGGACTGGGTG
CAGCTGGATCGGCCTTTTGATGATTTCATTGACAGGGAGACTATGCCACGGATGCCGTGG
CGGGACATTGGGGTGGTGGTCCACGGCTCACCTGCCCGGGACCTTGCCCGGCACTTCATC
CAGCGCTGGAATTTCACCAAGACTACCAAGACCAAGTACAAGATACCCATTTACCCCTAC
CTGCTGCCCAAATCCACCAGCACCGCAAACCAGCTCCCTTTCACACTTTCCGGAGGGCAG
TGCGCCACTGTGCAGGTCTTACGGTCAGTGGACCGCTGGTCAGCGGGCACCCTGGAGAAC
TCCATTCTCAATGCCTATCTGCACACCATCAGAGAGAGCCAGCACTTCCTCTACATTGAG
AATCAGTTCTTCATTAGCTGCTCAGATGGGCGGACAGTGCTGAACAAGGTGGGCGATGAG
ATTGTGGACAGAATCCTGAAGGCCCACAAACAGGGGCAGTGCTTCCGAGTCTACGTGCTT
TTGCCCCTGCTCCCTGGGTTCGAGGGTGACATCTCCACAGGTGGTGGTAACTCCATCCAG
GCCATTCTGCACTTCACTTACAGGACGCTGTGTCGTGGGGAATATTCAATTTTACATCGT
CTCAAAGCAGCCATGGGGACAGAATGGCGGAACTATATTTCCGTCTGTGGGCTACGCACA
CACGGAGAACTAGGCGGGCACCCAGTATCGGAGCTCATCTATATCCACAGCAAGATGCTT
ATCGCAGATGACCGGACAGTCATCATTGGCTCAGCAAACATCAATGACCGGAGCTTGCTG
GGGAAGCGAGACAGTGAGCTGGCCGTGCTGATCGAGGACACAGAAATGGAGCCATCCCTC
ATGAACGGTGTGGAGTATCAGGCAGGCAGGTTTGCCTTGAGTCTGCGGAAGCACTGCTTC
AGCGTGATTCTAGGGGCTGCTGCTCGGCCACATCTGGATCTCCGAGACCCTGTCTGTGAT
GCCTTCTTCCAGTTGTGGCAAGACACAGCTGAGAGCAATGCCAATATCTATGAGCAGATC
TTCCGATGCCTTCCATCCAATGCCACACGCTCCCTGCGGGCACTTCGGGAGTATGTAGTC
GTGGAGCCCCTGGCCACGGTCAGCCCTCCCTTGGCCCGATCTGAACTCAACCAGGTCCAG
GGCCACCTCGTCCACTTCCCCCTCAAGTTCCTGGAGGATGAGTATTTGCTGCCCTCCCTG
GGTAGCAAGGAGGGTGTGATGCCCCTAGAAGTGTGGACATAG
Enzyme 4 GenBank Gene ID BT026202 Link Image
Enzyme 4 GeneCard ID PLD2 Link Image
Enzyme 4 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 4 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 4 Locus 17p13.1
Enzyme 4 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 4 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 4 Metabolite References Not Available