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Bovine Rumen Metabolome Database



Showing metabocard for Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (RMDB00112)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2005-11-16 15:48:42
Update Date 2009-07-05 13:30:42
Accession Number RMDB00112
Common Name Gamma-Aminobutyric acid
Description Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the nervous systems of widely divergent species. It is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system. In vertebrates, GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain. GABA acts by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons. This binding causes the opening of ion channels to allow either the flow of negatively-charged chloride ions into the cell or positively-charged potassium ions out of the cell. This will typically result in a negative change in the transmembrane potential, usually causing hyperpolarization. Three general classes of GABA receptor are known. These include GABAA and GABAC ionotropic receptors, which are ion channels themselves, and GABAB metabotropic receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors that open ion channels via intermediaries (G proteins). Neurons that produce GABA as their output are called GABAergic neurons, and have chiefly inhibitory action at receptors in the vertebrate. Medium Spiny Cells are a typical example of inhibitory CNS GABAergic cells. GABA exhibits excitatory actions in insects, mediating muscle activation at synapses between nerves and muscle cells and also the stimulation of certain glands. GABA has also been shown to have excitatory roles in the vertebrate, most notably in the developing cortex. Organisms synthesize GABA from glutamate using the enzyme L-glutamic acid decarboxylase and pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. It is worth noting that this involves converting the principal excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) into the principal inhibitory one (GABA). Drugs that act as agonists of GABA receptors (known as GABA analogues or GABAergic drugs) or increase the available amount of GABA typically have relaxing, anti-anxiety and anti-convulsive effects. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GABA) Doses of GABA 1 to 3 g orally also have been used effectively to raise the IQ of mentally retarded persons. GABA is found to be deficient in cerebrospinal fluid and brain in many studies of experimental and human epilepsy. Benzodiazepines (such as Valium) are useful in status epilepticus because they act on GABA receptors. GABA increases in the brain after administration of many seizure medications. Hence, GABA is clearly an antiepileptic nutrient. Inhibitors of GAM metabolism can also produce convulsions. Spasticity and involuntary movement syndromes, e.g., Parkinson's, Friedreich's ataxia, tardive dyskinesia, and Huntington's chorea are all marked by low GABA when amino acid levels are studied. Trials of 2 to 3 g of GABA given orally have been effective in various epilepsy and spasticity syndromes. Agents that elevate GABA also are useful in lowering hypertension. Three grams orally have been effective in control of blood pressure. GABA is decreased in various encephalopathies. GABA can reduce appetite and is decreased in hypoglycemics. GABA reduces blood sugar in diabetics. Chronic brain syndromes can also be marked by deficiency of GABA; GABA has many promising uses in therapy. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of GABA may be useful in diagnosing very serious diseases. Vitamin B6, manganese, taurine and lysine can increase both GABA synthesis and effects, while aspartic acid and glutamic acid probably inhibit GABA effects. (http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/Detail.CFM)The brain's principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA, along with serotonin and norepinephrine, is one of several neurotransmitters that appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety and mood disorders. There are two principal subtypes of postsynaptic GABA receptor complexes, the GABA-A and GABA-B receptor complexes. Activation of the GABA-B receptor by GABA causes neuronal membrane hyperpolarization and a resultant inhibition of neurotransmitter release. In addition to binding sites for GABA, the GABA-A receptor has binding sites for benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and neurosteroids. GABA-A receptors are coupled to chloride ion channels; activation of the receptor induces increased inward chloride ion flux, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal inhibition. After release into the synapse, free GABA that does not bind to either the GABA-A or GABA-B receptor complexes can be taken up by neurons and glial cells. Four different membrane transporter proteins, known as GAT-1, GAT-2, GAT-3, and BGT-1, which differ in their distribution in the CNS, are believed to mediate the uptake of synaptic GABA into neurons and glial cells. The GABA-A receptor subtype regulates neuronal excitability and rapid changes in fear arousal, such as anxiety, panic, and the acute stress response. Drugs that stimulate GABA-A receptors, such as the benzodiazepines and barbiturates, have anxiolytic and anti-seizure effects via GABA-A-mediated reduction of neuronal excitability, which effectively raises the seizure threshold. In support of the anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of the GABA-A receptor are findings that GABA-A antagonists produce convulsions in animals and the demonstration that there is decreased GABA-A receptor binding in a positron emission tomography (PET) study of patients with panic disorder. Low plasma GABA has been reported in some depressed patients and, in fact, may be a useful trait marker for mood disorders. (The Role Of GABA In The Pathogenesis And Treatment Of Anxiety And Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders: http://www.vcu-cme.org/gaba/overview.html)
Synonyms
  1. 3-Carboxypropylamine
  2. 4-Aminobutanoate
  3. 4-Aminobutanoic acid
  4. 4-Aminobutyrate
  5. 4-Aminobutyric acid
  6. Aminalon
  7. GABA
  8. Gaballon
  9. Gamarex
  10. Gamma aminobutyrate
  11. Gamma aminobutyric acid
  12. Gamma-aminobutyrate
  13. Gamma-aminobutyric acid
  14. Gammalon
  15. Gammalone
  16. Gammar
  17. Gammasol
  18. Mielogen
  19. Mielomade
  20. Piperidate
  21. Piperidic acid
  22. Piperidinate
  23. Piperidinic acid
  24. w-Aminobutyrate
  25. w-Aminobutyric acid
  26. omega-Aminobutyrate
  27. omega-Aminobutyric acid
Chemical IUPAC Name 4-amino-Butanoic acid
Chemical Formula C4H9NO2
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom
  • Organic
Super Class
  • Amino acids and Amino Acid conjugates
Class
  • Amino Acids
Sub Class
  • NA
Family
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
Species
  • primary amine; primary aliphatic amine (alkylamine); carboxylic acid
Biofunction
  • Component of Alanine and aspartate metabolism; Component of beta-Alanine metabolism; Component of Butanoate metabolism; Component of Glutamate metabolism; Component of Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
Application
Source
  • Endogenous
Average Molecular Weight 103.120
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 103.063332
Isomeric SMILES NCCCC(O)=O
Canonical SMILES NCCCC(O)=O
KEGG Compound ID C00334 Link Image
BioCyc ID 4-AMINO-BUTYRATE Link Image
BiGG ID 34652 Link Image
Wikipedia Link GABA Link Image
METLIN ID Not Available
PubChem Compound 119 Link Image
PubChem Substance 11335791 Link Image
ChEBI ID 16865 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 56-12-2
InChI Identifier InChI=1/C4H9NO2/c5-3-1-2-4(6)7/h1-3,5H2,(H,6,7)
Synthesis Reference Minoshima, Ryoichi. Preparation of gamma-aminobutyric acid with unripened beans. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 25pp.
Melting Point (Experimental) 203 oC
Experimental Water Solubility 1300.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 365.0 mg/mL [Predicted by ALOGPS] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge 0
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity -3.17 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity -2.99 [Predicted by ALOGPS]; -0.7 [Predicted by PubChem via XLOGP] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show Link Image
SDF File Show Link Image
PDB File Show Link Image
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID Not Available
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Not Available
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Mass Spectrum
Low Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Medium Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
High Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Not Available
BMRB Spectrum Not Available
Cellular Location
  • Cytoplasm (Predicted from LogP)
  • Extracellular
  • lysosome
  • mitochondria
Biofluid Location
  • Rumen
Tissue Location
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 66.1 +/- 13.4 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition Normal (0% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis)
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Concentrations (Abnormal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 76 +/- 12 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 15% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 87 +/- 14 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 30% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 103 +/- 33 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 45% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Pathway Names Not Available
HMDB Pathways Not Available
KEGG Pathways Not Available
SimCell Pathways Not Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia Link Image
Metabolic Enzymes
  1. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
  2. Glutamate decarboxylase 1
  3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 2
Enzyme 1 [top]
Enzyme 1 ID 596
Enzyme 1 Name 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Enzyme 1 Synonyms
  1. Gamma-amino-N-butyrate transaminase
  2. GABA transaminase
  3. GABA-T
  4. GABA aminotransferase
  5. GABA-AT
  6. L-AIBAT
  7. (S)-3-amino-2-methylpropionate transaminase
Enzyme 1 Gene Name ABAT
Enzyme 1 Protein Sequence >4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial
MASMLVAQRLACSFQHSYRLLVPGSRHISQAAAKVDVEFDYDGRLMKTEVPGLRCQELMK
QLNIIQNAEAVHFFCNYEESRGNYLVDVDGNRMLDLYSQISSVPIGYSHPGLLKLIQQPQ
NASMFVNRPALGILLPENFVEKLRQSLLSVAPKGMSQLITMACGSCSNENGLKTIFMWYR
SKERGQRGFPQEELETCMINQAPWCPDYSILSFMGAFHGRTMGCLATTHSKAIHKIDIPS
FDWPIAPFPRLKYPLEEFVKENQQEEARCLEEVEDLIVKYRKKKKTVAGIIVEPIQSEGG
DNHASDDFFRKLRDIPRKQCCAFLVDVVQTGGGCTGKFWAHEHWARDDPEDVMTSSKKMM
TGGFFHKEEFRPNAPYRIFNTWLGDPSKNLLLAEVINIIKREDLLNNAAHAGKALLTGLL
DLQARYPQFISRVRGRGTFCSFDTPDDSIRNKLILIARNKGVVLGGCGDKSIRFRPTLVF
RDHHAHLFLNIFSDILADFK
Enzyme 1 Number of Residues 500
Enzyme 1 Molecular Weight 56730.9
Enzyme 1 Theoretical pI 8.21
Enzyme 1 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 1 General Function Amino acid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 1 Specific Function Catalyzes the conversion of gamma-aminobutyrate and L- beta-aminoisobutyrate to succinate semialdehyde and methylmalonate semialdehyde, respectively. Can also convert delta-aminovalerate and beta-alanine
Enzyme 1 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 1 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 1 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 1 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 1 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 1 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 1 GenBank ID Protein 12584862 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q9BGI0 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GABT_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 1 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 1 Gene Sequence >1503 bp
ATGGCGTCCATGTTGGTCGCCCAGCGCCTGGCCTGCAGCTTCCAGCACAGCTACCGCCTG
CTGGTGCCTGGATCCAGACACATTAGTCAAGCTGCAGCCAAAGTCGACGTTGAATTTGAT
TATGATGGGCGTCTGATGAAGACGGAAGTCCCAGGGCTTAGATGTCAGGAGTTAATGAAA
CAGCTGAATATAATTCAGAATGCAGAGGCTGTGCATTTTTTCTGCAATTACGAAGAGAGC
CGAGGCAATTACCTGGTTGATGTGGACGGCAACCGAATGCTGGATCTTTATTCCCAGATC
TCCTCTGTCCCCATAGGTTACAGCCACCCCGGCCTGCTGAAACTCATCCAACAGCCTCAA
AATGCGAGCATGTTTGTCAACAGACCCGCCCTCGGAATCCTGCTTCCGGAGAACTTTGTG
GAGAAGCTCCGGCAGTCCTTGCTCTCGGTGGCTCCCAAAGGGATGTCCCAGCTCATCACC
ATGGCCTGCGGCTCCTGCTCCAATGAAAACGGCTTAAAGACCATCTTCATGTGGTACCGG
AGCAAGGAAAGAGGGCAGAGGGGCTTCCCCCAAGAGGAGCTGGAGACGTGCATGATTAAC
CAGGCCCCCTGGTGCCCCGACTACAGCATCCTCTCCTTCATGGGCGCGTTCCATGGGAGG
ACCATGGGTTGCTTAGCGACCACGCACTCTAAAGCCATTCACAAGATCGACATCCCTTCC
TTTGACTGGCCCATCGCACCGTTCCCACGGCTGAAATACCCTCTGGAAGAGTTTGTGAAA
GAGAACCAACAGGAGGAGGCCCGCTGTCTGGAAGAGGTGGAGGATCTGATTGTGAAATAT
CGGAAAAAGAAGAAGACGGTGGCCGGGATCATCGTGGAGCCCATCCAGTCCGAGGGTGGA
GACAACCACGCATCCGATGACTTCTTTCGGAAGCTGAGAGACATCCCCAGGAAGCAATGC
TGCGCCTTCTTGGTGGACGTGGTCCAGACCGGAGGAGGCTGCACGGGCAAGTTCTGGGCC
CACGAGCACTGGGCCCGGGATGACCCAGAAGACGTGATGACCTCCAGCAAGAAGATGATG
ACTGGGGGCTTCTTCCACAAGGAGGAGTTCAGGCCTAATGCTCCCTACCGGATCTTCAAC
ACCTGGCTGGGGGACCCGTCCAAGAACCTGTTGCTGGCTGAGGTCATCAACATCATCAAG
CGGGAGGACCTGCTAAATAATGCAGCCCATGCCGGGAAGGCCCTGCTCACAGGACTGCTG
GACCTCCAGGCCCGGTACCCCCAGTTCATCAGCAGGGTGAGAGGACGAGGCACCTTTTGC
TCCTTCGATACTCCCGATGATTCCATACGGAATAAGCTCATTTTAATTGCCAGAAACAAA
GGTGTGGTGTTGGGTGGCTGTGGTGACAAATCCATTCGTTTCCGTCCCACGCTGGTGTTC
AGGGATCACCACGCACACCTGTTCCTCAATATTTTCAGTGACATCTTAGCAGACTTCAAG
TAA
Enzyme 1 GenBank Gene ID AF305692 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GeneCard ID ABAT Link Image
Enzyme 1 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 1 Locus 16p13.2
Enzyme 1 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 1 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 1 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 2 [top]
Enzyme 2 ID 862
Enzyme 2 Name Glutamate decarboxylase 1
Enzyme 2 Synonyms Not Available
Enzyme 2 Gene Name GAD1
Enzyme 2 Protein Sequence >Glutamate decarboxylase 1
MASSTPSSSATSSNAGADPNTTNLRPTTYDTWCGVAHGCTRKLGLKICGFLQRTNSLEEK
SRLVSAFKERQSSKNLLSCENSDKDGRFRRTETDFSNLFARDLLPAKNGEEQTVQFLLEV
VDILLNYVRKTFDRSTKVLDFHHPHQLLEGMEGFNLELSDHPESLEQILVDCRDTLKYGV
RTGHPRFFNQLSTGLDIIGLAGEWLTSTANTNMFTYEIAPVFVLMEQITLKKMREIVGWS
SKDGDGIFSPGGAISNMYSIMAARFKYFPEVKTKGMAAVPKLVLFTSEHSHYSIKKAGAA
LGFGTDNVILIKCNERGKIIPADLETKILEAKQKGYVPLYVNATAGTTVYGAFDPIQEIA
DICEKYNLWLHVDAAWGGGLLMSQKHRHKLSGIERANSVTWNPHKMMGVLLQCSAILVKE
KGILQGCNQMCAGYLFQPDKQYDVSYDTGDKAIQCGRHVDIFKFWLMWKAKGTVGFENQI
NKCLELAEYLYAKIKNREEFEMVFDGEPEHTNVCFWYIPQSLRGVPDSPERREKLHRVAP
KIKALMMESGTTMVGYQPQGDKANFFRMVISNPAATQSDIDFLIEEIERLGQDL
Enzyme 2 Number of Residues 594
Enzyme 2 Molecular Weight 66783.9
Enzyme 2 Theoretical pI 7.18
Enzyme 2 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 2 General Function Amino acid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 2 Specific Function Catalyzes the production of GABA
Enzyme 2 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 2 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 2 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 2 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 2 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 2 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 2 GenBank ID Protein 111305189 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q0VCA1 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name DCE1_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 2 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 2 Gene Sequence >1785 bp
ATGGCGTCTTCGACCCCTTCTTCGTCCGCAACCTCCTCGAACGCGGGAGCGGACCCCAAT
ACTACCAACCTGCGCCCCACAACGTATGACACCTGGTGCGGCGTGGCCCATGGATGCACC
AGAAAACTGGGGCTGAAGATCTGCGGCTTCTTGCAGAGGACCAACAGCCTGGAAGAGAAG
AGCAGGCTTGTGAGCGCCTTCAAGGAGAGGCAGTCCTCCAAGAACCTGCTTTCCTGTGAA
AACAGTGACAAGGATGGCCGCTTCCGCCGCACAGAGACAGACTTCTCCAACCTGTTCGCC
CGAGATCTGCTTCCGGCTAAGAACGGGGAGGAGCAAACTGTGCAATTCCTGTTGGAGGTG
GTAGACATACTCCTCAACTATGTCCGGAAGACGTTCGATCGCTCCACCAAAGTGCTGGAC
TTCCACCACCCCCACCAGCTGCTGGAAGGCATGGAGGGCTTCAACTTGGAACTCTCTGAC
CACCCCGAGTCCCTGGAGCAGATCCTGGTTGACTGCAGAGACACCCTGAAATATGGGGTC
CGCACAGGTCATCCACGATTTTTCAACCAGCTCTCCACAGGATTGGATATCATTGGTTTA
GCTGGCGAGTGGCTGACATCAACTGCCAATACCAATATGTTTACATATGAAATTGCACCA
GTGTTTGTCCTCATGGAGCAAATAACACTTAAGAAGATGAGAGAGATAGTTGGATGGTCA
AGTAAAGATGGTGATGGGATATTTTCTCCTGGGGGAGCCATATCCAACATGTACAGCATC
ATGGCTGCTCGCTTCAAGTACTTCCCGGAAGTTAAGACCAAGGGTATGGCGGCTGTGCCC
AAGCTTGTCCTCTTCACCTCAGAACACAGTCACTATTCCATAAAGAAAGCTGGGGCTGCA
CTTGGCTTTGGAACCGACAACGTGATTTTGATAAAGTGCAATGAAAGGGGGAAGATAATT
CCAGCTGATTTAGAGACAAAAATTCTTGAAGCCAAGCAAAAGGGTTACGTCCCTCTCTAC
GTCAATGCAACTGCTGGCACCACTGTTTATGGCGCTTTTGATCCGATACAGGAGATTGCA
GATATATGTGAGAAATACAACCTTTGGCTGCATGTCGATGCTGCCTGGGGTGGCGGGCTG
CTCATGTCCCAGAAGCACCGCCATAAGCTCAGTGGCATCGAGAGGGCCAACTCTGTCACC
TGGAACCCTCACAAGATGATGGGTGTGCTGCTGCAGTGCTCTGCCATTCTTGTAAAAGAA
AAGGGTATCCTCCAAGGATGCAACCAGATGTGTGCGGGATACCTCTTCCAGCCGGACAAG
CAGTATGATGTCTCCTATGACACTGGGGACAAGGCCATTCAGTGTGGCCGCCACGTAGAC
ATCTTCAAGTTCTGGCTGATGTGGAAAGCAAAGGGTACAGTGGGCTTTGAAAATCAGATC
AACAAATGCTTGGAACTGGCTGAATACCTCTATGCCAAGATTAAAAACAGAGAAGAATTT
GAGATGGTTTTTGATGGTGAGCCTGAGCATACGAACGTCTGTTTCTGGTATATTCCACAA
AGCCTCAGGGGTGTTCCAGATAGCCCCGAACGACGGGAAAAGCTACACAGGGTGGCCCCA
AAGATCAAAGCCCTGATGATGGAATCTGGCACAACCATGGTTGGCTACCAGCCTCAGGGG
GACAAGGCCAACTTCTTCCGGATGGTCATCTCCAACCCAGCCGCTACCCAATCTGATATT
GACTTCCTCATTGAGGAGATAGAGAGGCTGGGCCAGGATCTGTAA
Enzyme 2 GenBank Gene ID BC120278 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GeneCard ID GAD1 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Chromosome Location Chromosome:2
Enzyme 2 Locus 2q31
Enzyme 2 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 2 General References Not Available
Enzyme 2 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 3 [top]
Enzyme 3 ID 950
Enzyme 3 Name Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 2
Enzyme 3 Synonyms
  1. GABA(A) receptor-associated protein-like 2
  2. Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer of 16 kDa
  3. GATE-16
  4. General protein transport factor p16
  5. Ganglioside expression factor 2
  6. GEF-2
  7. MAP1 light chain 3-related protein
Enzyme 3 Gene Name GABARAPL2
Enzyme 3 Protein Sequence >Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 2
MKWMFKEDHSLEHRCVESAKIRAKYPDRVPVIVEKVSGSQIVDIDKRKYLVPSDITVAQF
MWIIRKRIQLPSEKAIFLFVDKTVPQSSLTMGQLYEKEKDEDGFLYVAYSGENTFGF
Enzyme 3 Number of Residues 117
Enzyme 3 Molecular Weight 13666.7
Enzyme 3 Theoretical pI 8.43
Enzyme 3 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 3 General Function Involved in ATPase binding
Enzyme 3 Specific Function Involved in intra-Golgi traffic. Modulates intra-Golgi transport through coupling between NSF activity and SNAREs activation. It first stimulates the ATPase activity of NSF which in turn stimulates the association with GOSR1
Enzyme 3 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 3 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 3 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 3 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 3 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 3 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 3 GenBank ID Protein 4433387 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P60519 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GBRL2_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 3 PDB ID 1EO6 Link Image
Enzyme 3 PDB File Show
Enzyme 3 3D Structure
Enzyme 3 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 3 Gene Sequence >354 bp
ATGAAGTGGATGTTCAAGGAGGACCACTCGCTGGAACACAGATGCGTGGAATCTGCGAAG
ATCAGAGCGAAATACCCCGACCGGGTTCCGGTGATTGTGGAAAAGGTCTCAGGCTCTCAG
ATTGTTGACATTGACAAACGGAAGTATCTGGTTCCATCCGACATCACTGTGGCTCAGTTC
ATGTGGATCATCAGGAAAAGGATCCAGCTTCCTTCTGAAAAGGCGATCTTCCTGTTTGTG
GATAAGACAGTCCCTCAGTCCAGCCTAACTATGGGACAGCTTTACGAGAAGGAAAAAGAT
GAAGATGGATTCTTGTACGTGGCCTACAGTGGCGAGAACACTTTCGGCTTCTGA
Enzyme 3 GenBank Gene ID AF020262 Link Image
Enzyme 3 GeneCard ID GABARAPL2 Link Image
Enzyme 3 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 3 Locus 16q22.3-q24.1
Enzyme 3 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 3 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 3 Metabolite References Not Available