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Bovine Rumen Metabolome Database



Showing metabocard for D-Galactose (RMDB00143)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2005-11-16 15:48:42
Update Date 2009-05-05 20:57:42
Accession Number RMDB00143
Common Name D-Galactose
Description D-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-Galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-Galactose and D-Galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-Galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-Galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. 2.7.1.6) (GALK) to form D-Galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. 2.7.7.12) (GALT) D-Galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-Galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia-a term that denotes the presence of D-Galactose in the blood is the rare inborn error of D-Galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-Galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene. (PMID: 15256214, 11020650, 10408771)
Synonyms
  1. (+)-Galactose
  2. D-(+)-Galactose
  3. D-Galactose
  4. Alpha-d-galactopyranose
  5. Alpha d-galactose
  6. GLA
  7. GAL
  8. Hexose
  9. Alpha-d-galactose
  10. Galactose
  11. GLC
  12. 5abp
  13. 8abp
  14. Galactose (NF)
Chemical IUPAC Name alpha-D-galactopyranose
Chemical Formula C6H12O6
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom
  • Organic
Super Class
  • Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate conjugates
Class
  • Carbohydrates
Sub Class
  • Monosaccharides
Family
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
Species
  • hemiacetal; primary alcohol; secondary alcohol; 1,2-diol; heterocyclic compound
Biofunction
  • Component of Galactose metabolism; Component of Glycerolipid metabolism; Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
Application
Source
  • Endogenous
Average Molecular Weight 180.156
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 180.063385
Isomeric SMILES OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
Canonical SMILES OCC1OC(O)C(O)C(O)C1O
KEGG Compound ID C00124 Link Image
BioCyc ID GALACTOSE Link Image
BiGG ID 33945 Link Image
Wikipedia Link Hexose Link Image
METLIN ID 134 Link Image
PubChem Compound 439357 Link Image
PubChem Substance 837254 Link Image
ChEBI ID 28061 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 59-23-4
InChI Identifier InChI=1/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
Synthesis Reference Avigad, Gad. Synthesis of D-galactose-6-t and D-galactosides-6-t. Carbohydrate Research (1967), 3(4), 430-4.
Melting Point (Experimental) 170 oC
Experimental Water Solubility 683.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 782.0 mg/mL [Predicted by ALOGPS] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge 0
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity Not Available Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity -2.57 [Predicted by ALOGPS]; -2.43 [MEYLAN,WM & HOWARD,PH (1995)]; -2.3 [Predicted by PubChem via XLOGP] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show Link Image
SDF File Show Link Image
PDB File Show Link Image
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID Not Available
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Not Available
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Show Image
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Mass Spectrum
Low Energy
Download File
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Medium Energy
Download File
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High Energy
Download File
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Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Not Available
BMRB Spectrum Not Available
Cellular Location
  • Cytoplasm (Predicted from LogP)
  • Extracellular
  • lysosome
Biofluid Location
  • Cow_Milk
  • Rumen
Tissue Location
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 763.813 +/- 751.731 uM
Age N/A
Sex N/A
Condition Normal
Breed Not Available
Experimental Condition Not Available
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Concentrations (Abnormal)
Pathway Names Not Available
HMDB Pathways Not Available
KEGG Pathways Not Available
SimCell Pathways Not Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia Link Image
Metabolic Enzymes
  1. Galactokinase
Enzyme 1 [top]
Enzyme 1 ID 538
Enzyme 1 Name Galactokinase
Enzyme 1 Synonyms
  1. Galactose kinase
Enzyme 1 Gene Name GALK1
Enzyme 1 Protein Sequence >Galactokinase
MAASEQPQAGELLAKARRAFLEEFGAEPELAVSAPGRVNLIGEHTDYNRGLVLPMALELV
TVLVGSPRVDGLVSLLTTSEDADEPRRLQFPLPTSQRPLEPGTPHWANYVKGVIQHYPAA
PLPGFSAVVVSSVPLGGGLSSSASLEVATYTFLQQLCPDSGTIAARAQVCQRAEHSFAGV
PCGIMDQLIALLGQRGHALLIDCRSLETSLVPLSDPKLAVLITNSNVRHSLGSSEYPLRR
RQCEEVARALGKESLREVQLEELEAGRDLMSTEAFRRARHVVGEIQRTAQAAAALRRGDY
RAFGRLMVESHHSLRDDYEVSCPELDQLVEAALSAPGVYGSRMTGGGFGGCTVTLLEASA
APRVMQHIQEQYHGTATFYLSQAADGAKVLHF
Enzyme 1 Number of Residues 392
Enzyme 1 Molecular Weight 42226.5
Enzyme 1 Theoretical pI 6.09
Enzyme 1 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 1 General Function Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Enzyme 1 Specific Function Major enzyme for galactose metabolism
Enzyme 1 Pathways
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • galactose metabolism
Enzyme 1 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 1 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 1 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 1 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 1 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 1 GenBank ID Protein 148878469 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID A6H768 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GALK1_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 1 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 1 Gene Sequence >1179 bp
ATGGCCGCTTCGGAGCAGCCCCAGGCCGGGGAGCTGCTGGCCAAGGCCCGGAGAGCCTTC
CTGGAGGAGTTCGGAGCTGAGCCCGAGCTAGCCGTGTCGGCCCCGGGCCGCGTCAACCTC
ATCGGGGAACACACGGACTACAACCGGGGCCTGGTGTTGCCCATGGCCCTGGAGCTTGTG
ACAGTGCTGGTGGGCAGCCCCCGCGTGGATGGGCTTGTTTCCCTCCTCACTACCTCTGAG
GATGCTGATGAGCCCCGGCGGCTGCAGTTTCCTCTGCCCACAAGCCAGCGGCCACTGGAG
CCTGGGACCCCTCACTGGGCCAACTATGTCAAGGGAGTGATTCAGCACTACCCAGCTGCC
CCCCTCCCTGGCTTCAGCGCAGTGGTGGTCAGCTCTGTGCCCCTGGGGGATGGGCTGTCC
AGCTCGGCGTCCCTGGAAGTGGCCACGTATACTTTCCTACAGCAGCTCTGCCCAGACTCG
GGGACAATAGCTGCCCGGGCCCAGGTGTGTCAGCGGGCCGAGCACAGCTTCGCAGGGGTG
CCCTGTGGCATCATGGACCAGCTCATCGCACTGCTGGGGCAGAGAGGCCACGCGCTGCTC
ATTGACTGCAGGTCCCTGGAGACAAGCCTGGTGCCGCTGTCGGACCCCAAGCTGGCCGTG
CTCATCACCAACTCCAACGTTCGCCATTCCCTGGGCTCCAGCGAGTATCCCCTGCGGCGG
CGCCAGTGTGAAGAGGTGGCCCGGGCGCTGGGCAAGGAGAGCCTTCGGGAGGTACAGCTG
GAGGAGCTGGAGGCTGGCCGGGACCTGATGAGCACGGAGGCCTTCCGGCGGGCGCGGCAC
GTGGTGGGCGAGATCCAGCGAACGGCCCAGGCGGCGGCCGCCCTGCGCCGCGGCGACTAC
AGAGCCTTCGGCCGCCTCATGGTGGAGAGTCACCACTCGCTCAGAGACGACTATGAGGTG
AGCTGCCCGGAGCTGGATCAGCTGGTGGAGGCCGCGCTCTCTGCTCCTGGGGTTTACGGC
AGCCGCATGACAGGCGGTGGCTTCGGGGGCTGCACGGTGACCCTGCTGGAGGCCTCTGCC
GCTCCTCGGGTGATGCAGCACATCCAGGAGCAGTACCATGGGACGGCCACCTTCTACCTC
TCCCAGGCGGCTGATGGCGCCAAGGTGCTGCACTTCTGA
Enzyme 1 GenBank Gene ID BC146132 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GeneCard ID GALK1 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 1 Locus 17q24
Enzyme 1 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 1 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 1 Metabolite References Not Available