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Bovine Rumen Metabolome Database



Showing metabocard for Urea (RMDB00294)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2005-11-16 15:48:42
Update Date 2009-05-28 13:41:32
Accession Number RMDB00294
Common Name Urea
Description Urea is a highly soluble organic compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids. Urea is formed in a cyclic pathway known simply as the urea cycle. In this cycle, amino groups donated by ammonia and L-aspartate are converted to urea. Urea is essentially a waste product; it has no physiological function. It is dissolved in blood (in humans in a concentration of 2.5 - 7.5 mmol/liter) and excreted by the kidney in the urine. In addition, a small amount of urea is excreted (along with sodium chloride and water) in human sweat.
Synonyms
  1. Carbonyl diamine
  2. Ureacin-40 Creme
  3. Hyanit
  4. Carmol
  5. Superprill
  6. Bubber shet
  7. Uremol 20 Cream 20%
  8. Simply botanical sensations healing hands
  9. Onychomal
  10. Pylori-chek breath test
  11. Dermal therapy-finger care
  12. Urederm Cream 10%
  13. Dermaflex Crm 10%
  14. Carbonyldiamide
  15. Urisec Lotion 12%
  16. Pastaron
  17. Urea-13C
  18. Ureophil
  19. Carbamimidic acid
  20. Caswell No. 902
  21. Urea perhydrate
  22. Urea
  23. Isourea
  24. Urepeal
  25. Pseudourea
  26. Ureaphil
  27. Urea solution
  28. Dermal therapy-heel care
  29. Dermaflex 20 Urea Cream 20%
  30. Uremol 10 Cream 10%
  31. Polyurea
  32. Keratinamin
  33. Aquacare HP
  34. Optigen 1200
  35. Urea homopolymer
  36. Mocovina [czech]
  37. URE
  38. Pastaron 20 soft
  39. Eucerin Lotion 10% D'uree
  40. Carbaderm
  41. Carbamex 330mgms
  42. Helicosol
  43. Calmurid HC
  44. Keratinamin kowa
  45. Bromisovalum
  46. Panafil
  47. Ultra Mide 25
  48. Murine ear wax removal system/murine ear drops
  49. Aqua care
  50. Carbamide resin
  51. Urepearl
  52. Urevert
  53. Elaqua XX
  54. Carbamimic acid
  55. ARF
  56. Breathtek ubt for h-pylori
  57. Uree 20 Cream
  58. Urepeal l
  59. Pastaron (TN)
  60. Dermal therapy-hand elbow and knee cream
  61. Pastaron 20
  62. Ureacin-20
  63. Pastaron soft
  64. B-I-k
  65. U-cort
  66. Carmol HC
  67. Urea (JP15/USP)
  68. Urisec 22% Crm
  69. Pastaron 10
  70. Nutraplus
  71. Urea ammonium nitrate solution
  72. Calmurid
  73. Alphadrate
  74. Carmol 40
  75. Carbamide
  76. Lotion
  77. Harnstoff [german]
  78. Varioform II
  79. Mocovina
  80. Carbonyl diamide
  81. Carbonyldiamine
  82. Supercel 3000
  83. Rubinol ST 010
  84. Harnstoff
  85. Uremol 10 Lotion 10%
  86. Aqua care HP
  87. Ultra mide
  88. Ureacin-10 lotion
  89. Prespersion 75 urea
  90. beta-I-k
Chemical IUPAC Name Urea
Chemical Formula CH4N2O
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom
  • Organic
Super Class
  • Ketones and Aldehydes
Class
  • Amino Ketones
Sub Class
  • Miscellaneous amino ketones
Family
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
Species
  • urea
Biofunction
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
Application
Source
  • Endogenous
Average Molecular Weight 60.055
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 60.032364
Isomeric SMILES NC(N)=O
Canonical SMILES NC(N)=O
KEGG Compound ID C00086 Link Image
BioCyc ID UREA Link Image
BiGG ID 33799 Link Image
Wikipedia Link Urea Link Image
METLIN ID 6 Link Image
PubChem Compound 1176 Link Image
PubChem Substance 841412 Link Image
ChEBI ID 16199 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 57-13-6
InChI Identifier InChI=1/CH4N2O/c2-1(3)4/h(H4,2,3,4)
Synthesis Reference Leuthardt, F.; Glasson, B. Biological synthesis of urea. Verhandl. Ver. schweiz. Physiol. (1942), 21 25-7.
Melting Point (Experimental) 132 oC
Experimental Water Solubility 545.0 mg/mL [YALKOWSKY,SH (1989)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 412.0 mg/mL [Predicted by ALOGPS] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge 0
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity -2.11 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity -1.78 [Predicted by ALOGPS]; -1.7 [Predicted by PubChem via XLOGP] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show Link Image
SDF File Show Link Image
PDB File Show Link Image
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID 1BV3 Link Image
Experimental PDB File Show
Experimental PDB Structure
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Not Available
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Mass Spectrum
Low Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Medium Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
High Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Not Available
BMRB Spectrum Not Available
Cellular Location
  • Cytoplasm (Predicted from LogP)
  • Extracellular
  • mitochondria
Biofluid Location
  • Cow_Milk
  • Rumen
Tissue Location
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 898 +/- 84 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition Normal (0% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis)
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Concentrations (Abnormal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 1872 +/- 1191 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 15% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 2928 +/- 1634 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 30% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 1977 +/- 792 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 45% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Pathway Names Not Available
HMDB Pathways Not Available
KEGG Pathways Not Available
SimCell Pathways Not Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia Link Image
Metabolic Enzymes
  1. Arginase-1
  2. Arginase-2, mitochondrial
  3. Probable allantoicase
Enzyme 1 [top]
Enzyme 1 ID 553
Enzyme 1 Name Arginase-1
Enzyme 1 Synonyms
  1. Type I arginase
  2. Liver-type arginase
Enzyme 1 Gene Name ARG1
Enzyme 1 Protein Sequence >Arginase-1
MSSKPQSIGVIGAPFSKGQPRGGVEEGPTVLRKAGLLEKLKELECDVKDYGDLSFADNLD
DSPFQIVKNPRCVGKASEKLADVVAEVKKTGRISLVLGGDHSLAIGSISGHARVHPDLCV
IWVDAHTDINTPLTTKTGNLHGQPVSFLLKELKEKMPEVPGFYWVAPCISAKDIVYIGLR
DVDPGEHYILKTLGIKYFSMTEVDKLGIGKVMEETFSYLLGRKKRPIHLSFDVDGLDPSF
TPATGTPVQGGLTYREGLYITEEIYKTGLLSGLDIMEVNPSLGKTPEEVTRTVNTTVAIT
MACFGVAREGNHKPIDYLSPPK
Enzyme 1 Number of Residues 322
Enzyme 1 Molecular Weight 35009.0
Enzyme 1 Theoretical pI 6.51
Enzyme 1 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 1 General Function Amino acid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 1 Specific Function L-arginine + H(2)O = L-ornithine + urea
Enzyme 1 Pathways
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • urea cycle
  • L-ornithine and urea from L-arginine:step 1/1
Enzyme 1 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 1 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 1 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 1 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 1 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 1 GenBank ID Protein 86824019 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q2KJ64 Link Image
Enzyme 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ARGI1_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 1 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 1 Gene Sequence >969 bp
ATGAGTTCCAAGCCACAGTCCATCGGGGTCATTGGAGCTCCCTTCTCAAAGGGCCAGCCA
CGAGGAGGGGTGGAAGAAGGCCCTACAGTACTTAGAAAGGCTGGTCTGCTTGAGAAACTT
AAAGAACTAGAGTGTGATGTGAAAGATTATGGGGACCTGTCCTTTGCTGATAATCTTGAT
GACAGTCCCTTTCAAATTGTGAAGAATCCAAGGTGTGTGGGAAAAGCAAGTGAAAAGCTG
GCTGATGTGGTGGCAGAAGTCAAGAAGACTGGAAGGATCAGCCTTGTCCTGGGCGGAGAC
CACAGTTTGGCGATCGGCAGCATCTCTGGCCATGCCAGGGTCCACCCAGACCTCTGTGTC
ATTTGGGTGGATGCTCACACGGACATCAACACTCCACTGACAACCAAAACCGGGAACTTG
CATGGACAACCTGTGTCTTTCCTTCTGAAGGAACTAAAGGAAAAGATGCCTGAGGTCCCA
GGATTCTACTGGGTGGCTCCCTGCATATCTGCCAAAGACATTGTGTATATTGGTCTGAGA
GATGTGGACCCTGGGGAACACTATATTTTGAAAACTCTGGGAATTAAATACTTTTCAATG
ACTGAAGTGGATAAACTGGGAATTGGCAAGGTGATGGAAGAAACATTCAGCTATCTACTA
GGAAGAAAGAAAAGGCCAATTCATTTGAGCTTTGATGTTGATGGACTGGACCCATCTTTC
ACGCCAGCTACTGGCACACCAGTCCAGGGAGGTCTGACTTACAGAGAAGGTCTCTACATC
ACAGAAGAAATTTACAAAACAGGTTTACTCTCAGGATTAGATATAATGGAAGTGAATCCG
TCTCTGGGGAAGACACCAGAAGAAGTGACTCGAACAGTGAACACAACAGTAGCAATAACC
ATGGCTTGCTTTGGGGTTGCTCGAGAGGGTAACCATAAACCTATTGATTACCTTAGCCCA
CCAAAGTAA
Enzyme 1 GenBank Gene ID BC105497 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GeneCard ID ARG1 Link Image
Enzyme 1 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 1 Chromosome Location Chromosome:6
Enzyme 1 Locus 6q23
Enzyme 1 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 1 General References Not Available
Enzyme 1 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 2 [top]
Enzyme 2 ID 558
Enzyme 2 Name Arginase-2, mitochondrial
Enzyme 2 Synonyms
  1. Arginase II
Enzyme 2 Gene Name ARG2
Enzyme 2 Protein Sequence >Arginase-2, mitochondrial
MSLRSHLSRLLRTQVHSVRKKSVHSVAVIGAPFSQGQKRKGVEYGPAAVRXAGLMKRLSD
LGCHLKDFGDLNFTPVPKDDLYNNLIVNPRSVGLANQELAEVVSRAVSGGYSCVTVGGDH
SLAIGTISGHARHCPDLGVIWVDAHADINTPLTTSSGNLHGQPVSFLLRELQDKVPQLPG
FSWIKPCISSPSIVYIGLRDVDPPEHFILKNYDIQYFSMRDIDRLGIQKVMEQTFDLLIG
KRQRPIHLSFDIDAFDPTLAPATGTPVVGGLTYREGIYITEEIHSTGLLSALDLVEVNPR
LAVSEEEAKATASLAVDVIASSFGQTREGGHIVYDQLPTPSSPDESESEERVRI
Enzyme 2 Number of Residues 354
Enzyme 2 Molecular Weight 38561.5
Enzyme 2 Theoretical pI 6.45
Enzyme 2 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 2 General Function Amino acid transport and metabolism
Enzyme 2 Specific Function May play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis
Enzyme 2 Pathways
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • urea cycle
  • L-ornithine and urea from L-arginine:step 1/1
Enzyme 2 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 2 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 2 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 2 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 2 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 2 GenBank ID Protein 61553631 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q58DL1 Link Image
Enzyme 2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ARGI2_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 2 PDB ID 1PQ3 Link Image
Enzyme 2 PDB File Show
Enzyme 2 3D Structure
Enzyme 2 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 2 Gene Sequence >1065 bp
ATGTCCCTGAGGAGCCACCTCTCGCGTCTCCTCCGGACGCAAGTGCACTCCGTCCGGAAG
AAGTCTGTCCACTCCGTGGCTGTCATTGGAGCCCCATTCTCCCAGGGACAGAAAAGAAAA
GGAGTGGAATATGGTCCTGCTGCTGTAAGANAAGCTGGCTTGATGAAAAGGCTCTCGGAT
CTGGGCTGCCACCTTAAAGACTTCGGAGATTTGAATTTTACTCCAGTTCCCAAAGATGAT
CTCTATAACAACTTGATAGTGAATCCTCGCTCAGTGGGCCTGGCCAACCAGGAACTAGCG
GAGGTGGTTAGCCGAGCTGTGTCAGGTGGCTACAGCTGTGTCACGGTGGGAGGAGACCAC
AGCCTGGCAATCGGTACCATCAGTGGCCACGCCCGACACTGCCCAGACCTTGGTGTGATC
TGGGTTGATGCCCATGCTGACATCAATACACCCCTCACCACTTCATCTGGAAATCTACAT
GGACAGCCAGTTTCGTTTCTCCTCAGAGAACTACAGGACAAGGTACCACAGCTCCCAGGA
TTTTCCTGGATCAAACCTTGTATCTCTTCTCCAAGTATTGTATATATTGGACTAAGAGAC
GTGGACCCTCCTGAACATTTTATTTTAAAGAATTATGATATCCAGTATTTTTCCATGAGA
GACATAGATCGACTTGGTATCCAGAAGGTCATGGAACAGACATTCGATCTGCTGATTGGC
AAAAGACAAAGGCCAATCCATCTGAGTTTCGATATTGATGCATTTGACCCTACACTGGCT
CCAGCCACAGGAACCCCTGTTGTAGGGGGACTGACCTATCGAGAAGGCATATATATTACT
GAGGAAATACACAGTACAGGGTTGCTCTCGGCCCTGGACCTCGTTGAAGTCAATCCTCGG
TTGGCCGTGTCAGAGGAGGAGGCCAAGGCTACAGCCAGCCTGGCAGTGGACGTCATTGCT
TCGAGTTTCGGGCAGACGAGGGAGGGAGGGCATATTGTCTACGACCAACTTCCAACTCCC
AGCTCACCAGATGAATCAGAGAGTGAAGAACGTGTAAGAATTTAG
Enzyme 2 GenBank Gene ID BT021586 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GeneCard ID ARG2 Link Image
Enzyme 2 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 2 Chromosome Location Chromosome:1
Enzyme 2 Locus 14q24.1-q24.3
Enzyme 2 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 2 General References
  1. [PubMed Link Image]
Enzyme 2 Metabolite References Not Available
Enzyme 3 [top]
Enzyme 3 ID 801
Enzyme 3 Name Probable allantoicase
Enzyme 3 Synonyms
  1. Allantoate amidinohydrolase
Enzyme 3 Gene Name ALLC
Enzyme 3 Protein Sequence >Probable allantoicase
MADSPREGKVARPPDFTQLIDLASEFVGGKILFATDDFFAPAENLLKRDNPSFKEHEYTE
FGKWMDGWQTRRKRIPGHDWCVVQLGIQGVIRGFDVDTSYFTGDHAPRVSIQAANFEEDK
QPEIPQREVRTGAAATPEEFEAISELKSDDWSCLVPMTELTPGNPASSHNYFPVTSQQRW
SHIRLNIFPDGGIARLRVYGTGQKDWTAGDPKEPLDLVTVAYGGACVGFSNAHFGHPNNL
IGVGTATSMADGWETARRLDRPPILENDENGILLVPGCEWAVFRLAHPGVITQIEIDTKY
FKGNSPESCKVDGCILTTQEEEDMVRQKWDLPGHKWKPLLPVTKLKPDEMHVLDSLTPEL
QDVITHAKFTITPDGGVSRLRLKGFPSSICLLRPREKPMMRFSVKAGFRANL
Enzyme 3 Number of Residues 412
Enzyme 3 Molecular Weight 46083.9
Enzyme 3 Theoretical pI 5.81
Enzyme 3 GO Classification
Function
Process
Component
Enzyme 3 General Function Involved in allantoicase activity
Enzyme 3 Specific Function The function of this enzyme is unclear as allantoicase activity is not known to exist in mammals
Enzyme 3 Pathways Not Available
Enzyme 3 Reactions Not Available
Enzyme 3 Pfam Domain Function
Enzyme 3 Signals
  • None
Enzyme 3 Transmembrane Regions
  • None
Enzyme 3 Essentiality Not Available
Enzyme 3 GenBank ID Protein 86438325 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q2KIG4 Link Image
Enzyme 3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name ALLC_BOVIN Link Image
Enzyme 3 PDB ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Cellular Location Not Available
Enzyme 3 Gene Sequence >1239 bp
ATGGCTGACTCCCCCAGGGAAGGAAAAGTGGCCAGGCCTCCAGACTTCACGCAGCTGATT
GACTTGGCATCTGAGTTTGTAGGAGGAAAGATTTTATTTGCAACAGATGACTTCTTTGCT
CCTGCTGAAAATCTTTTAAAGAGGGACAACCCAAGTTTTAAAGAACACGAGTACACTGAG
TTTGGGAAATGGATGGATGGATGGCAGACCAGAAGGAAAAGGATTCCAGGTCACGACTGG
TGCGTGGTCCAGCTGGGCATCCAGGGAGTTATCCGGGGCTTCGACGTGGACACGTCCTAC
TTCACGGGAGATCACGCCCCTCGAGTGTCGATTCAAGCGGCAAACTTCGAAGAAGATAAG
CAGCCAGAAATCCCACAACGAGAAGTCAGGACAGGAGCCGCGGCCACCCCCGAGGAGTTT
GAAGCCATTTCAGAGCTGAAGTCCGACGACTGGAGTTGCTTGGTTCCCATGACAGAACTT
ACACCGGGAAATCCTGCTTCCAGCCACAACTACTTTCCGGTCACTTCCCAGCAGAGGTGG
AGTCACATACGACTCAACATTTTCCCGGATGGTGGAATCGCACGTCTTAGGGTGTATGGT
ACTGGACAAAAGGACTGGACCGCGGGTGACCCCAAAGAACCGTTAGACCTGGTGACCGTC
GCCTATGGGGGTGCCTGTGTAGGATTTAGCAATGCACATTTTGGGCACCCAAACAATTTA
ATAGGAGTCGGCACGGCGACGTCAATGGCAGACGGCTGGGAAACCGCACGGAGGCTGGAC
AGGCCCCCGATACTGGAGAATGATGAGAATGGTATTCTCCTGGTTCCAGGCTGTGAGTGG
GCAGTTTTCCGATTGGCGCATCCTGGAGTAATAACTCAAATCGAAATTGACACAAAATAT
TTCAAAGGTAATTCTCCTGAGAGCTGTAAGGTGGATGGCTGCATCCTGACGACTCAGGAG
GAGGAAGACATGGTCAGGCAGAAGTGGGACCTTCCGGGCCATAAGTGGAAGCCACTGCTT
CCAGTCACAAAGCTGAAGCCCGATGAGATGCATGTGCTGGACAGCCTGACCCCCGAACTG
CAGGACGTCATCACCCATGCCAAGTTCACCATCACCCCCGACGGGGGCGTGAGTCGCCTC
CGACTCAAGGGCTTTCCCAGCTCCATCTGCCTCTTGCGGCCCCGCGAGAAGCCCATGATG
AGGTTCTCGGTGAAGGCGGGGTTCAGGGCGAACCTCTAA
Enzyme 3 GenBank Gene ID BC112648 Link Image
Enzyme 3 GeneCard ID ALLC Link Image
Enzyme 3 GenAtlas ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 HGNC ID Not Available
Enzyme 3 Chromosome Location Chromosome:2
Enzyme 3 Locus 2q35
Enzyme 3 SNPs SNPJam Report Link Image
Enzyme 3 General References Not Available
Enzyme 3 Metabolite References Not Available