We are currently updating the database - data may be missing for the next 10 minutes. We apologize for any inconvenience.

Bovine Rumen Metabolome Database



Showing metabocard for Caffeine (RMDB01847)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2006-02-16 08:53:46
Update Date 2009-05-05 20:58:53
Accession Number RMDB01847
Common Name Caffeine
Description Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant drug in the world that mostly is consumed in the form of coffee. Whether caffeine and/or coffee consumption contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the single leading cause of death in the US, is unclear. The literature indicates a strong relationship between boiled, unfiltered coffee consumption and elevated cholesterol levels; however, there is a critical gap in the literature regarding the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on fibrinogen or CRP, which is an independent predictor of CVD risk. Available studies are limited by small samples sizes, inclusion of only men (or few women) and unrepresented age or ethnic groups. There is a critical need for controlled laboratory and epidemiological studies that include fibrinogen and CRP markers of CVD risk before conclusions can be drawn regarding the health effects of caffeine and/or coffee in a normal, healthy population of men and women. (PMID: 16856769 ) The relationship between caffeine consumption and various illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and cancer remains equivocal. Prudence might dictate that pregnant women and chronically ill individuals exercise restraint in their use of caffeine, although research suggests relatively low or nonexistent levels of risk associated with moderate caffeine consumption. (PMID: 7844249) There is extensive evidence that caffeine at dietary doses increases blood pressure (BP). However, concern that the drug may contribute to cardiovascular disease appears to have been dampened by (1) the belief that habitual use leads to the development of tolerance, and (2) confusion regarding relevant epidemiologic findings. When considered comprehensively, findings from experimental and epidemiologic studies converge to show that BP remains reactive to the pressor effects of caffeine in the diet. Overall, the impact of dietary caffeine on population BP levels is likely to be modest, probably in the region of 4/2 mm Hg. At these levels, however, population studies of BP indicate that caffeine use could account for premature deaths in the region of 14% for coronary heart disease and 20% for stroke. (PMID: 14747639) Caffeine is a purine alkaloid that occurs naturally in coffee beans. At intake levels associated with coffee consumption, caffeine appears to exert most of its biological effects through the antagonism of the A1 and A2A subtypes of the adenosine receptor. Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator with mostly inhibitory effects, and adenosine antagonism by caffeine results in effects that are generally stimulatory. Some physiological effects associated with caffeine administration include central nervous system stimulation, acute elevation of blood pressure, increased metabolic rate, and diuresis. Caffeine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed in the stomach and small intestine and distributed to all tissues, including the brain. Caffeine metabolism occurs primarily in the liver, where the activity of the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP1A2 accounts for almost 95% of the primary metabolism of caffeine. CYP1A2-catalyzed 3-demethylation of caffeine results in the formation of 1,7-dimethylxanthine (paraxanthine). Paraxanthine may be demethylated by CYP1A2 to form 1-methylxanthine, which may be oxidized to 1-methyluric acid by xanthine oxidase. Paraxanthine may also be hydroxylated by CYP2A6 to form 1,7-dimethyluric acid, or acetylated by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) to form 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil, an unstable compound that may be deformylated nonenzymatically to form 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil. Caffeine concentrations in coffee beverages can be quite variable. A standard cup of coffee is often assumed to provide 100 mg of caffeine, but a recent analysis of 14 different specialty coffees purchased at coffee shops in the US found that the amount of caffeine in 8 oz (=240 ml) of brewed coffee ranged from 72 to 130 mg.Caffeine in espresso coffees ranged from 58 to 76 mg in a single shot. (PMID 16507475) Caffeine is a member of the methylxanthine family of drugs, and is the most widely consumed behaviourally active substance in the western world. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that caffeine modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. For instance studies indicate that caffeine and its major metabolite paraxanthine suppress neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis, and also suppress production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha from human blood. Caffeine has also been reported to suppress human lymphocyte function as indicated by reduced T-cell proliferation and impaired production of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2 and interferon [IFN]-gamma), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5) and Th3 (IL-10) cytokines. Studies also indicate that caffeine suppresses antibody production. The evidence suggests that at least some of the immunomodulatory actions of caffeine are mediated via inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-phosphodiesterase (PDE), and consequential increase in intracellular cAMP concentrations. Overall, these studies indicate that caffeine, like other members of the methylxanthine family, is largely anti-inflammatory in nature, and based on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, many of its immunomodulatory effects occur at concentrations that are relevant to normal human consumption. (PMID 16540173)
Synonyms
  1. Hycomine
  2. 1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine
  3. 7-methyl Theophylline
  4. Thein
  5. 1-methyl-Theobromine
  6. Methylxanthine theophylline
  7. 1,3,7-Trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  8. Lanorinal
  9. 1,3,7-Trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
  10. Propoxyphene
  11. 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  12. Methyltheobromide
  13. Guaranine
  14. Anhydrous caffeine (JP15)
  15. Monohydrate Caffeine
Chemical IUPAC Name 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
Chemical Formula C8H10N4O2
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom
  • Organic
Super Class
  • Nucleosides and Nucleoside conjugates
Class
  • Purines and Purine Derivatives
Sub Class
  • Methyl purines
Family
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
Species
  • oxo(het)arene; aromatic compound; heterocyclic compound
Biofunction
Application
Source
  • Exogenous
Average Molecular Weight 194.191
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 194.080383
Isomeric SMILES CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(C)C(=O)N2C
Canonical SMILES CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(C)C(=O)N2C
KEGG Compound ID C07481 Link Image
BioCyc ID Not Available
BiGG ID Not Available
Wikipedia Link Caffeine Link Image
METLIN ID 1455 Link Image
PubChem Compound 2519 Link Image
PubChem Substance 825460 Link Image
ChEBI ID 27732 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 58-08-2
InChI Identifier InChI=1/C8H10N4O2/c1-10-4-9-6-5(10)7(13)12(3)8(14)11(6)2/h4H,1-3H3
Synthesis Reference Not Available
Melting Point (Experimental) 238 oC
Experimental Water Solubility 21.6 mg/mL at 25 oC [YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 11.0 mg/mL [Predicted by ALOGPS] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge 0
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity -0.07 [HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)] Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity -0.24 [Predicted by ALOGPS]; -0.5 [Predicted by PubChem via XLOGP] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show Link Image
SDF File Show Link Image
PDB File Show Link Image
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID Not Available
Experimental PDB File Show
Experimental PDB Structure
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Not Available
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Show Image
Show Peaklist
Mass Spectrum
Low Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Medium Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
High Energy
Download File
Show Experimental Conditions Link Image
Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Not Available
BMRB Spectrum Not Available
Cellular Location
  • Cytoplasm (Predicted from LogP)
Biofluid Location
  • Rumen
Tissue Location
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 22.83 +/- 7.5 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition Normal (0% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis)
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Concentrations (Abnormal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 16 +/- 4 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 15% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 26 +/- 6 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 30% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 17 +/- 7 uM
Age 4-5 years old
Sex Female (lactating)
Condition 45% barley grain in dry matter (DM) basis
Breed Holstein-Friesian
Experimental Condition Rumen fluid for the analysis was collected 15-20 minutes before the morning feeding on days 12 and 21 of each experimental period. Cows were fed once daily at 0800.
Comments Not Available
References
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Pathway Names Not Available
HMDB Pathways Not Available
KEGG Pathways Not Available
SimCell Pathways Not Available
General References
  1. Wikipedia Link Image