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Bovine Rumen Metabolome Database

Showing metabocard for Beryllium (RMDB02387)

Legend: metabolite field enzyme field

Version 1.0
Creation Date 2006-05-22 15:17:51
Update Date 2009-04-01 11:33:10
Accession Number RMDB02387
Common Name Beryllium
Description Beryllium is a light-weight metallic element, which was first recognized as a lung hazard in Europe in the 1930s, shortly after its first production in modern industry. People exposed to beryllium compounds are at increased risk of developing beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). The chronic lung disease was first described among workers exposed to beryllium-containing materials used in the manufacture of fluorescent lamps. In primary production of beryllium metal, which was used in nuclear weapons components, physicians recognized severe dermatitis, reversible pneumonitis, and chronic granulomatous lung disease. Physiologically, this metal/element exists as an ion in the body. It is now recognized that the physicochemical properties of beryllium compounds may account for the differing clinical presentations in different industries. In primary production of beryllium metal, soluble salts are present and cause rashes in approximately one fourth of exposed workers and reversible acute pneumonitis in a smaller portion of the workforce. After heavy inhalation exposures, radiographic abnormalities evolve at approximately three weeks; resolution of symptoms and radiologic abnormalities away from exposure occur only after months, but symptoms recur immediately upon reexposure. The granulomatous nature of chronic beryllium disease is now known to be caused by cell-mediated sensitization to beryllium. Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disorder characterized by the accumulation of beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells. Depending on genetic susceptibility and the nature of the exposure, CBD occurs in up to 20% of exposed workers. Genetic susceptibility has been associated with particular HLA-DP alleles, especially those possessing a negatively charged glutamic acid residue at the 69th position of the beta-chain. The mechanism for this association lies in the ability of these HLA-DP molecules to bind and present beryllium to pathogenic CD4(+) T cells. Large numbers of effector memory, beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells are recruited to the lung of these subjects and secrete Th1-type cytokines upon beryllium recognition. The presence of circulating beryllium-specific CD4(+) T cells directly correlates with the severity of lymphocytic alveolitis. Since 1987, this biomarker of sensitization has enabled medical surveillance of beryllium-exposed workforces. Beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests have been used to screen workers to detect sensitization, to characterize epidemiologically workplace risks for beryllium sensitization, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions intended to prevent sensitization. The most compelling real-world example of genetic testing for susceptibility to a workplace exposure involves those industries that process or fabricate beryllium. Under reasonable assumptions, the longitudinal positive predictive value of the HLA-DPB1-Glu69 marker of susceptibility to beryllium disease is 12%. Interpretive challenges further limit the utility of the test and may inadvertently suggest a false sense of safety among workers. Reduction in inhalation exposure to beryllium has not resulted in a concomitant reduction in the occurrence of beryllium sensitization or CBD, suggesting that continued prevalence may be due, in part, to unchecked skin exposure to beryllium-containing particles. (PMID: 17094767, 16697706, 16231190)
  1. Be
  2. Beryllium atom
  3. Beryllium element
  4. Beryllium-9
  5. Beryllium metallicum
  6. Glucinium
  7. Glucinum
Chemical IUPAC Name beryllium
Chemical Formula [Be]2+
Chemical Structure Structure
Chemical Taxonomy
  • Inorganic
Super Class
  • Inorganic compounds
  • Inorganic Ions and Gases
Sub Class
  • Metals
  • Mammalian_Metabolite
  • Exogenous
Average Molecular Weight 9.012
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 9.012180
Isomeric SMILES [Be++]
Canonical SMILES [Be++]
KEGG Compound ID C16460 Link Image
BioCyc ID Not Available
BiGG ID Not Available
Wikipedia Link Not Available
METLIN ID Not Available
PubChem Compound 5460467 Link Image
PubChem Substance 47205756 Link Image
ChEBI ID 30501 Link Image
CAS Registry Number 7440-41-7
InChI Identifier InChI=1/Be/q+2
Synthesis Reference Not Available
Melting Point (Experimental) 1300 oC
Experimental Water Solubility Not Available Source: PhysProp
Predicted Water Solubility 149 mg/mL at 25 oC [MEYLAN,WM et al. (1996)] Calculated using ALOGPS
Physiological Charge 2
State Solid
Experimental LogP/Hydrophobicity Not Available Source: PhysProp
Predicted LogP/Hydrophobicity -0.57 [MEYLAN,WM & HOWARD,PH (1995)] Calculated using ALOGPS
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
MOL File Show Link Image
SDF File Show Link Image
PDB File Show Link Image
2D Structure
3D Structure
Experimental PDB ID Not Available
Experimental 1H NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Experimental 13C HSQC Spectrum Not Available
Predicted 1H NMR Spectrum Not Available
Not Available
Predicted 13C NMR Spectrum Not Available
Not Available
Mass Spectrum Not Available
Simplified TOCSY Spectrum Not Available
BMRB Spectrum Not Available
Cellular Location Not Available
Biofluid Location
  • Rumen
Tissue Location Not Available
Concentrations (Normal)
Biofluid Rumen
Value 0.061 +/- 0.058 uM
Age N/A
Sex Female
Condition Normal
Breed Not Available
Experimental Condition Not Available
Comments Not Available
  • The rumen metabolome (in preparation)
Concentrations (Abnormal) Not Available
Pathway Names Not Available
HMDB Pathways Not Available
KEGG Pathways Not Available
SimCell Pathways Not Available
General References Not Available